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Rizal and the Issue of Race

28 June 2011

This article by the American Isma Dooly appeared on page 3 of  the Atlanta Constitution on 28 July 1902 and was a derivative of the observations made by Dr. Jose Rizal on issues of the racial prejudices against the Filipino in his own country.   Breaking the racial characteristics of the indolent indio cast by the ruling Spaniards, Dr. Rizal rose to represent what Filipino can become.

Interestingly enough, the well-travelled Rizal found the United States unfriendly to himself and other Asians, when he first landed on its shores via the SS Belgic in 1888, a decade before this article was written.  He wrote:  “Here [in San Francisco] we are in sight of America since yesterday without being able to disembark, placed in quarantine on account of the 642 Chinese that we have on board coming from Hong Kong where they say smallpox prevails. But the true reason is that, as America is against Chinese immigration, and now they are campaigning for the elections, the government, in order to get the vote of the people, must appear to be strict with the Chinese, and we suffer. On board there is not one sick person.”   The young hero felt strongly against the prejudicial treatment of the Chinese; perhaps because he drew parallels to himself — a Filipino and a Chinaman, several generations removed.

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The Thomasites

25 June 2011

Thomasites and their students in Benguet.

Between 1901 and 1902, 1,074 American teachers were sent by the United States government to the Philippines. Named after the USS Thomas, the ship which transported the last batch of expatriated educators, the Thomasites sought to establish a new public school system, to teach basic education and to train Filipino teachers, with English as the medium of instruction.

We invite family member and those with connections to these pioneering teachers to take part in The Thomasites genealogy and family history project on Geni.com.

As of 01 September 1902, these were the names of the expatriated Americans and their stations:

A :: Frederic W Abbot (Davao City, Davao) :: Lilian Abbot (Cotobato City, Cotobato) :: Ned Abbot (Cotobato City, Cotobato) :: William Abel (Bambang, Nueva Viscaya) :: FR Adams (Tabilaran, Bohol) :: Isaac Adams (San Jose, Batangas) :: Wilbar H Adams (Talisay, Batangas) :: Ralph H Adamson (Looc, Tablas, Romblon) :: E Joe Albertson (Agusan, Misamis) :: Henrieta M Albright (Tarlac, Tarlac) :: Bertram A Albro (Candon, Ilocos Sur) :: De Witt C Allen (Guiuan, Samar) :: Joseph E Allen (Naga, Cebu) :: BF Ames (Maasin, Leyte) :: AB Anderson (Bugason, Antique) : CJ Anderson (Lucena, Quezon) :: Claude E Andrews (Alcala, Cagayan) :: TD Anglemeyer (Lingayen, Pangasinan) :: Sarah Annis (Cagayan, Misamis) :: Lucinda Ansbro (Tarlac, Tarlac) :: Alfred Arnold (Apalit, Pampanga) :: GW Aschenbrenner (Pototan, Iloilo) :: Florence Ashmore (Manila) :: Otho Atkin (Iba, Zambales)

B :: WK Bachelder (Ilog, Negros Occidental) :: Viola Badger (Manila) :: FJ Bailey (Sequijor, Negros Oriental) :: Clairborne B Baker (Nautical School, Manila) :: Clarence E Baker (Camalig, Albay) :: EE Baker (Lucena, Quezon) :: Iver O Bakken (Castillejos, Zambales) :: HH Balch (Tayabas, Quezon) :: Mise LI Balfe (Masbate, Masbate) :: CR Bancroft (Magallanes, Sorsogon) :: Charles S Banks (Maao, Negros Occidental) :: HE Bard (Cebu City, Cebu) :: Louis Barlit (Butuan, Ticao, Masbate) :: Albert Joseph Barnaud (Tagbilaran, Bohol) :: Arthur W Barnes (San Jose de Lagonoy, Camarines) :: John V Barrow (Oslob, Cebu) :: James Barry (Boac, Marinduque) :: Juan Basa (Nautical School, Manila) :: Kate L Bassett (Manila) :: N Richmond Baugh (La Carlota, Negros Occidental) :: FI Baughman (Biñan, Laguna) :: LD Baun (Moncada, Tarlac) :: AA Bear (Jaro, Leyte) :: WB Bear (Laguan, Samar) :: GW Beattie (Bacolod, Negros Occidental) :: Helen P Beattie (Bacolod, Negros Occidental) :: FG Behner (Banton, Romblon) :: Carl D Behrens (Pitogo, Tayabas, Quezon) :: CA Belknap (Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija) :: Holland E Bell (Tuguegarao, Cagayan) :: Mary Bell (Tuguegarao, Cagayan) :: Clara M Bennett (Balanga, Bataan) :: Guy V Bennett (Buhi, Camarines) :: Rose C Bennett (Lucban, Tayabas, Quezon) :: Rebecca E Berry (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental) :: Luther B Bewley (Milaor, Camarines) :: Charles Bingesser (Tacloban, Leyte) :: Roy Blackman (Mangaldan, Pangasinan) :: Ralph R Blackney (Guijulngan, Negros Oriental) :: BN Blakeeslee (Banton, Romblon) :: Elizabeth F Blandin (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: BG Bleasdale (Pasig, Rizal) :: Charles F Bliss (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) :: John F Bobbit (Cagayan, Misamis) :: Anna C Boe (Danao, Cebu) :: GH Bohner (Cantilan, Surigao) :: William E Boling (Lagonoy, Camarines) :: OH Bollman (Baguio, Benguet) :: Kathryn Bolton (Normal School, Manila) :: George A Bond and wife (Calivo, Capiz) :: Olney Bondurant (Tayabas, Quezon) :: LH Bonelli Jr (Concepcion, Tarlac) :: Frederick Douglass Bonner (Subic, Zambales) :: Mabel Bonsall (Normal School, Manila) :: Joseph F Boomer (Oroquieta, Misamis) :: Thomas Eugene Borden (Tanauan, Batangas) :: Harvey A Bordner (Solano, Nueva Viscaya) :: Julia Bousquet (Romblon, Romblon) :: George B Bowers (Bauan, Batangas) :: Theodore W Bowler (Indan, Camarines) :: A Boyles (Tayabas, Quezon) :: Bryan Bradley (Calaca, Batangas) :: WR Bradley and wife (Ligao, Albay) :: EW Bratton (Miag-ao, Iloilo) :: FE Braucht (Mexico, Pampanga) :: Beth Brenizer (Gerona, Tarlac) :: Carrie J Briggs (Surigao, Surigao) :: Gerow D Brill (Negros) :: Gilbert N Brink (Iloilo City, Iloilo) :: HD Britain (Atimonan, Quezon) :: Anthony Brogan (Imus, Cavite) :: CC Brown (Borongan, Samar) :: Harry H Brown (Malabuyoc, Cebu) :: Harry L Brown (Sequijor, Negros Oriental) :: Jessie E Brown (Romblon, Romblon) :: JRC Brown (Bauan, Batangas) :: FB Brustgruen (Cagayan, Misamis) :: Elmer B Bryan (Normal School, Manila) :: Luella H Bryan (Iba, Zambales) :: Mary R Bryan (Manila) :: HH Buck (Cavite, Cavite) :: WH Buck (San Miguel, Iloilo) :: Frances C Butlington (Manila) :: CH Burdick (San Juan de Bolboc, Batangas) :: AL Burdell (Aparri, Cagayan) :: PE Burns (Abulug, Cagayan) :: William B Burns (Donsol, Sorsogon) :: HM Butler (Capas, Tarlac) :: John Henry Manning Butler (Alaminos, Zambales) :: EH Buttles (Sibulan, Negros Oriental) :: Frank A Butts (Abucay, Bataan)

C :: Eleanor B Caldwell (Talisay, Cebu) :: Carson Calhoun (Davao City, Davao) :: Charles R Cameron (San Pedro, Antique) :: Norman W Cameron (Tagbilaran, Bohol) :: BE Campbell (Manila) :: H Morgan Campbell (Tayug, Pangasinan) :: Louis J Campbell (Manila) :: SA Campbell (Victoria, Tarlac) :: AA Carl (Palanos, Masbate) :: Theodore J Carberry (Mabitac, Laguna) :: Carl Carson (Solano, Cagayan) :: James W Carroll (Dao, Antique) :: WM Carruth (Santa Rita, Pampanga) :: CF Carsten (Batangas, Batangas) :: Anna H. Carter (Manila) :: Noble Carter (Paete, Laguna) :: Pearl B Carter (Manila) :: SS Caruthers (Binangonan, Rizal) :: GW Caulkins (Gubar, Sorsogon) :: WE Chapman (Iloilo City, Iloilo) :: W Huse Chapman (Porac, Pampanga) :: WI Chapman (Bago, Negros Occidental) :: J Maud Chase (Balanga, Batangas) :: Thorington C Chase :: Colasi, Antique :: JW Cheesborough (Santo Tomas, Batangas) :: Juliette N Childs (Manila) :: EE Christensen (Calivo, Capiz) :: JA Christensen (Iloilo City, Iloilo) :: Emerson Christie (Tetuan, Zamboanga) :: Frank Clapper (Bangued, Abra) :: Frederick T Clark (Santa Cruz, Laguna) :: Lilia A Clendenin (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) :: Della E Clinton (Manila) :: Guy Clinton (Manila) :: RL Clute (Bagauja, Surigao) :: Itah Cobb (Cuyo, Cuyo) :: EA Coddington (Capiz, Capiz) :: William J. Colbert (Nautical School, Manila) :: Harrie N Cole (Palo, Leyte) :: Mary S Cole (Palo, Leyte) :: JJ Coleman (Trinidad, Benguet) :: Mary E Coleman (Normal School, Manila) :: CB Collins (Mobo, Masbate) :: MA Colton (Cavite, Cavite) :: Susan A Colton (San Roque. Cavite) :: CE Conant (Bais, Negros Oriental) :: Norman G. Coner (Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya) :: Jas F. Conolly (Quinua, Bulacan) :: WM Connor Jr (Patnongan, Antique) :: Charles D Cool (Sianit, Ilocos Sur) :: WW Coon (Bulacan, Bulacan) :: Price W Cooper (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: EJ Corcoran (Oas, Albay) :: EE Corlett (Bacacay, Albay) :: AH Corley (Cauayan, Isabela) :: FF Corley (Echague, Isabela) :: J Edgar Corely (San Juan, La Union) :: John A Corliss (Daet, Camarines Sur) :: John G Coulter (Normal School, Manila) :: Alice H Covell (San Jose, Antique) :: CH Covell (SJ de Buenavista, Antique) :: William H Cowin (Baliuag, Bulacan) :: Mary B Crans (Baliuag, Bulacan) :: Annette L Crocker (Dagupan, Pangasinan) :: FL Crone (Nueva Caceres, Camarines) :: Alanson L Crosby (San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte) :: Joseph W Crow (Nabua, Camarines) :: May B Curtis (Jaro, Iloilo) :: Will J Cushman (Botolan, Zambales) :: HE Cutler (Tiui, Albay)

D :: WS Dakin (Bais, Negros Oriental) :: Thomas W Dale (Malabon, Rizal) :: AV Dalrymple (Pagbilao, Quezon) :: WC Damon (Jaen, Nueva Ecija) :: JF Daniel (Saravia, Negros Occidental) :: Ruth H Daniel (Saravia, Negros Occidental) :: BK Daniels (Bangued, Abra) :: Olive Daniels (Bangued, Abra) :: AW Davidson (Iloilo, Iloilo) :: JL Davis (Manila) :: WB Dawson (Araceli, Paragua) :: Anna C Day (Arayat, Pampanga) :: Leora Day (Manila) :: EF Deacon (Malilipot, Albay) :: JD De Huff (Janiuay, Iloilo) :: Theodore de Laguna (El Salvador, Misamis) :: John Demmer (Bigaa, Bulacan) :: TE Dennis (La Caridad, Cavite) :: Stephen S. Dent (Talisay, Negros Occidental) :: Lavina T De Tackin (Manila) :: Charles Derbyshire (Iba, Zambales) :: Myrtle E Dever (Legaspi, Albay) :: BF de Vore (Manila) :: Clyde A de Witt (Cavite, Cavite) :: Edward Dietrich (San Juan, Negros Oriental) :: James W Dilley (Boac, Marinduque) :: Effie RB Dodds (Zamboanga, Zamboanga) :: Nettie A Dogde (Bago, Negros Occidental) :: John W Dolly (Guagua, Pampanga) :: Anna M Donaldson (Nueva Caceres, Camarines) :: Clara R Donaldson (Nabua, Camarines) :: EJ Donaldson (Nueva Caceres, Camarines) :: Eleanor L Donaldson (Dagupan, Pangasinan) :: Laura L Donnelly (Zamboanga, Zamboanga) :: Jeanie W Dougherty (Talisay, Cebu) :: Josephine Dow (Normal School, Manila) :: James Dudley (Badoc, Ilocos Norte) :: Raymond Du Hadway (Taguig, Rizal) :: Fannie E Dunkin (San Felipe Neri, Rizal) :: Anna Dumlap (Mexico, Pampanga) :: James J Durn (Tuburan, Cebua) :: Jessie L Durnham (Manila) :: Mabel Early (Manila) :: AR Easman (Dingle, Iloilo) :: A Raalph Easman (Sorsogon, Sorsogon) :: Jennie M Easman (Sorsogon, Sorsogon) :: W Hazen Easman (Pateros, Rizal) :: Joseph J Eaton (Manila) :: William Edmonds (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: Harry T Edwards (Nautical School, Manila) :: JC Edwards (Castilan, Surigao) :: Snowdie B Edwards (Castilan, SurIgao) :: TH Edwards (Talisayan, Misamis) :: GM Egan (Orion, Bataan) :: Adelaide Egbert (Manila) :: Katherine Egbert (Manila) :: EF Eichenberg (Santa Catalina, Ilocos Sur) :: JG Embree (San Jacinto, Ticao, Masbate) :: BJ Epes (Bayombong, Nueva Viscaya) :: RD Epps (Bay, Laguna) :: Clarence B Etsler (Gasan, Marinduque) :: Emma L Evans (Calumpit,, Bulacan) :: Francis H. Evans (San Fernando, La Union) :: Glenn W Evans (Calbayog, Samar) :: JH Evans (Calbayog, Samar) :: HL Evarett (Malolos, Bulacan)

F :: James A Fairchild (Bustos, Bulacan) :: Alice M Fales (Manila) :: Charles J Fallon (Castellana, Negros Occidental) :: Ernest S Farnum (Virac, Catanduanes, Albay) :: EH Farrar Jr (Sariaya, Quezon) :: Lovine Farrell (Manila) :: Clarence B Farrow (Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur) :: May Faurote (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: Cora E Fay (Zamboanga, Zamboanga) :: Mary H Fee (Capiz, Capiz) :: GW Felton (Bacong, Negros Oriental) :: HB Fernald (Tuguegarao, Cagayan) :: Parker H Filmore (Tigaon, Camarines) :: Charlotte Finlay (Manila) :: Harold L Finlay (Cajidiocan, Sibuyan, Romblon) :: Ida Finlay (Manila) :: John H Finnigan (Tayabas, Quezon) :: DC Fisher (Silang, Cavite) :: Edwin E Fisher (Santa Cruz, Laguna) :: JL Fiscke (Dulag, Leyte) :: Katherine J Fitzgerald (Maasin, Leyte) :: Maurice V Fitzgerald (Matnog, Sorsogon) :: Joseph L Flaherty (Llana Hermosa, Bataan) :: HB Fleece (Pagsanjan, Laguna) :: Maud Flint (Tubigon, Bohol) :: Moses D Flint (Alfonso, Cavite) :: Lettue E Foley (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: Stephen W Ford (Albay) :: PF Foss (Dao, Capiz) :: Charles Frank (Tublay, Benguet) :: Walter E Franke (Florida Blanca, Pampanga) :: CW Franks (Magallanes, Sibuyan, Romblon) :: Lina A Frauenholz (Manila) :: Helen M Freeman (Bacolod, Negros Occidental) :: WA Freeman (Libmanan, Camarines) :: William B Freer (Nueva Caceres, Camarines) :: JB Freet (Lobo, Batangas) :: JF Freelin (Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur) :: Reuben F Friedel (Lemery, Batangas) :: James R Fugate (Sequijor, Negros Oriental) :: Charles Fuller (Cabangan Nueva, Isabella) ::

G :: Minnie H Gale (Manila) :: WW Gallup (Candon, Ilocos Sur) :: Ava L Galpin (Cebu, Cebu) :: JM Gambill (Macabebe, Pampanga) :: JA Gamill (Jaro, Iloilo) :: Amy Gandy (Bantay, Ilocos Sur) :: Clude Gandy (Bantay, Ilocos Sur) :: Amy D Garbutt (Baguio, Benguet) :: GE Garbutt (Industrial School, Baguio, Benguet) :: Allen Gard (Batangas, Batangas) :: Roy H Gearheart (Tagoloan, Misamis) :: George P Geissler (Amulung, Cagayan) :: Frank J George (San Fabian, Pangasinan) :: HA George (Galiano, Benguet) : HW Getchell (Cervantes, Lepanto) :: MG Gholson (Manila) :: LT Gibbens (Tagbilaran, Bohol) :: Edmund J Gibbons (San Fernando, La Union) :: David Gibbs (San Fernando, Pampanga) :: Eloise A Gibbs (San Fernando, Pampanga) :: HG Giddings (Lingayen, Pangasinan) :: PT Gilbert (Aloran, Misamis) :: Percy C Giles (Piat, Cagayan) :: TW Gilkyson (Obando, Bulacan) :: Harriet F Gillette (San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte) :: Harrison Gillette (Laoag, Ilocos Norte) :: Walter Gilliam (Bato, Catanduanes) :: Maria L Gilman (Rosario, Cavite) :: Elizabeth M Gilmore (Manila) :: Susan T Gladwin (Cariga, Leyte) :: Nellie M Gleason (Manila) :: Ronald P Gleason (Trade School, Manila) :: Frank L Glick (Tanay, Rizal) :: Lloyd Goble (Cajidiocan, Romblon) :: CH Goddhard (Mariveles, Bataan) :: Felipe Gomez (Iloilo, Iloilo) :: Albert O Goodale (Bangued, Abra) :: Edmondia R Goode (Cebu) :: HB Goodin (Dagupan, Pangasinan) :: Alfred S Goody (Tuao, Cagayan) :: Alexander Gordenker (Maria, Oriental Negros) :: George M Gordon (El Salvador, Misamis) :: Margaret Graft (Nueva Caceres, Camarines Sur) :: Clarissa M Graham (Manila) :: JM Graham (Pandan, Albay) :: Lily F Grant (Tacloban, Leyte) :: PM Gravatt (Matalom, Leyte) :: Frances H Gray (Batangas, Batangas) :: HS Gray (Calasiao, Pampanga) :: Lucile M Gray (San Jose, Zamboanga) :: RS Gray (San Jose, Zamboanga) :: Wayne Gray (Cariga, Leyte) :: Florence Grayum (Cebu) :: VH Gregg (Sevilla, Ilocos Sur) :: Joe J Griffin (Montalban, Rizal) :: Arthur L Griffiths (Jolo, Jolo) :: A Grossman (Hagonoy, Bulacan) :: Arthur W Gubisch (San Pedro, Laguna) :: CW Guerin (Orani, Bataan) :: Sallie Guerin (Orani, Bataan) :: Belle P Gunn :: George D Gunn :: Rachelle M Gurley (Marikina, Rizal) :: RB Gurley (Marikina, Rizal) :: HE Guyler (Tacloban, Leyte) :: John G Gwartney (Danao, Cebu)

H :: JB Hagbert (Manitao, Albay) :: Albert R Hager (Manila) :: Anna E Hahn (San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite) :: GL Hall (Trinidad, Benguet) :: CI Halsey (Sta. Cruz, Marinduque) :: EH Hammond (Lucena, Tayabas) :: CH Hanlin (Ticao, San Fernando, Masbate) :: Grace Hardemann (Lingayen, Pangasinan) :: George A. Harrison (Tagudin, Ilocos Sur) :: Adah C. Harsha (Malabon, Rizal) :: Charles D. Hart (Puerto Princesa, Palawan) :: JF Hart (San Felipe, Zambales) :: Claire B. Hassler (San Mateo, Rizal) :: WB Hathaway (Alcala, Pangasinan) :: J Hatheway (Tanjay, Negros Oriental) :: HJ Hawkins (Corregidor, Cavite) :: Edward R. Hay (Sta. Cruz, Cavite) :: Caroline Hayes (Aparri, Cagayan) :: JP Hayes (Butuan, Surigao) :: FL Hayford (Larena, Sequijor, Negros Oriental) :: MJ Hazelton (Bangui, Ilocos Norte) :: Roy L. Heindel (Sibalon, Antique) :: FE Hemenway (Cataingan, Masbate) :: Dallas Henderson (San Fernando, Pampanga) :: V Louise Herrick (Jaro, Iloilo) :: Henry Herrnleben (Calauang, Laguna) :: Levi C Higley (San Isidro, NuevaEcija) :: Lulu Long Higley (San Isidro, Nueva Ecija) :: WM Hilts (Romblon, Romblon) :: John S Hinckley (Cabangan, Zambales) :: Arthur K Hitchcock (Meycauayan, Bulacan) :: WD Hobbs (Romblon, Romblon) :: WW Holder (Masinloc, Zambales) :: Alice M Hollister (Tanauan, Leyte) :: HB Holmes (Sambuan, Cebu) :: Harold Homan (Ginatilan, Cebu) :: James Hopper (Cabancalan, Negros Occidental) :: Edith P Houston (Nasugbu, Batangas) :: Samuel T Houston (Nasugbu, Batangas) :: Ray Howell (Bacolod, Negros Occidental) :: Charles A Howland (San Esteban, Ilocos Sur) :: Charles E Hoye (San Mateo, Rizal) :: Euretta A Hoyles (Malabon, Rizal) :: Emily G Hubbard (Cebu) :: Marion Huff (Angeles, Pampanga) :: John L Hughes (Cagayan, Misamis) :: Mathias Hugo (Naic, Cavite) :: Belseta M Hull (Iloilo, Iloilo) :: Bedford Hunter (Iguig, Cagayan) :: N Leona Hunter (Manila)

I :: Bruce F Ingersoll (Nautical School, Manila) :: WS Irey (Magalang, Pampanga)

J :: PC Jack (Lingayen, Pangasinan) :: John H Jenkins (Badajos, Tabias, Romblon) :: John F Jennings (Manila) :: PF Jernegan (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) :: Marius John (Baao, Camarines) :: JW Johnson (Bangar, La Union) :: Maude L Johnson (Daet, Camarines) :: Ella Johnston (Manila) :: Emily Keith (Vigan, Ilocos Sur) :: Alice M Kelley (Bua, Benguet) :: Almira J Kelshaw (Olongapo, Zambales) :: WB Kempthorne (Taal, Batangas) :: Harvey H Kenagy (Maragondon, Cavite)

K :: Joshua B Kirkpatrick (Ayuquitan, Negros Oriental) ::

L :: FR Lutz (Manila) :: Laura Lutz (Manila) :: WE Lutz (Iloilo, Iloilo)

M :: Walter William Marquardt (Tanauan, Leyte) :: William Roy Matthews (Gumaca, Tayabas) :: Roderick G McLeod (Pila, Laguna) :: DC Montgomery (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental) :: Eva Montgomery (Dumaguete, Negros Oriental)

N :: Levona P. Newsom (Lingayen, Pangasinan)

O :: John J ODonnell Jr (Licab, Nueva Ecija):: Orman K. Osborn (Balinao, Zambales)

P :: Mary E Polley (Santa Barbara, Iloilo)

R :: Mae I Ross (Lucban, Tayabas)

S :: Vernon E Skiff (Baoang, La Union), George Robert Summers (Cauayan, Ilocos Sur)

T :: Bessie Taylor (Balanga, Bataan)

W :: Robert P Walker (Argao, Cebu)

Z :: Jeanette Zumstein (Nagcarlan, Laguna)

(encoding on-going)

Read more…

Mona’s Weekly Top 3

24 June 2011

Here’s what Pinoy family history nuts can sink their teeth into this week:

1. Dr. Jose Rizal, the Philippine National Hero, would have celebrated his 150th birthday last June 19.  Read about his paternal lineage.

2. The folks behind Geni launched AncestorSync, which  allows users to download, upload, or synchronize your online pedigree chart on Geni.com to your personal genealogy software on your local storage, and back again.  Join their public beta.

3. The recenty discovered “Callao Man” predates the “Tabon Man” by 47,000 years.  Update what you know of how the nation started.

Your Ka-Angkan,
Mona

Old Manila

23 June 2011

“Old Manila” (1940s) is a montage of random sceneries around Manila before World War II. Many of the structures have since been destroyed by war and neglect. In the background are popular songs of that decade, “Maybe” (1940) by the Ink Spots , “Together” (1944) by Helen Forrest and Dick Haymes and “Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'” (1943) by Rodgers and Hammerstein.

You can find more history videos here.

Here’s what you can find in this short film:

At 00:00, an estero with a kasko on the left bank.
At 00:25, modern multi-story structures with business signs “Panciteria”, “Motel” and “Tivoli” on the facade.
At 00:38, Filipino pedestrians in traditional and modern clothing crossing a busy street.
At 00:49, streets busy with trambia‘s.
At 01:13, more buildings and electric poles.
At 01:20, the Pasig River with a docked ship and a bridge in the background.
At 01:52, an eight-story “skyscraper” hovers over traditional structures along the banks of the Pasig River.
At 02:03, billboards for Royal orange drink and San Miguel Pale Pilsen.
At 02:20, carriages pass along a road in a middle-class residential area.
At 02:37, a banca sits quietly by the bank of the Pasig River.
At 02:54. the modern Manila pier.
At 03:01, Dewey Boulevard (now, Roxas Boulevard).
At 03:16, the office building signage of Kodak Cubana Limited.
At 03:20, a horse-drawn conveyance is parked, along a narrow street, in front of a commercial structure with protruding balconies, while children play in front and a motor vehicle drives by.
At 03:46, a plant vendor pushes his wares on a cart.
At 03:51, a modern structure, very likely an government institution.
At 03:59, more motor vehicles.
At 04:02, a busy beach, possibly near Manila Hotel.
At 04:25, parked automobiles in front of an art deco building.
At 04:28, a trambia.
At 04:32, one of the many puertas or gates of Intramuros.
At 04:58, the port district and the Magellan Monument.
At 05:31, details of the walled city’s architecture.
At 05:53, the heavy traffic along Escolta (notice a sign that says “Acme” on the right and the dome in the background is Binondo Church).
At 06:25, one of the puertas of Intramuros for pedestrian traffic.

The Case of the Mysterious Mrs. Rizal

22 June 2011

One hundred fifty years after Jose Rizal was born, it seems that nothing about this man has escaped the minds of the curious Rizalian.  So I was pleasantly surprised to find this article from the Georgia Constitution, dated 23 September 1897.

The news article refers to a Mrs. “Hozae” Rizal, Mariana Comenot Orbi, who I have never heard of in my many years of consuming Rizal’s life and works.  It continues on with many inaccuracies, from Dr. Rizal’s role as a president of a university she was attending to how the good doctor was shot against a wall.  She was also described by the piece as “typically oriental”.

Did Josephine Bracken ever spend time in Pennsylvania?  Did some poor journalist fall prey to a woman running a con? Or was this simply part of the American campaign against Spain during the height of war?

Excited as I was about my find, I came to learn that this topic has been the subject of study by Nestor Palugod Enriquez of the Filipino American National Historical Society in New Jersey.  According to Mr. Enriquez, this was released via new wires and saw coverage on the New York Times, the LA Times, Deseret News, among others.  He went on to try to find more articles describing Josephine Bracken as a Remington-firing, trench-diving widow nursing the flames of revenge.

I will keep this image in mind when I finally get to read “Romance and Revolution” by Luis Lisa and Javier de Pedro, which has long been sitting on my night stand, alongside others.  The book looks into the lives and times of Jose Rizal and Josephine Bracken and was released by the University of Asia and the Pacific in time for Lolo Pepe’s 150th.

Whether or not this woman who claimed to be Rizal’s widow was Josephine Bracken or a con woman playing a fallen insurgent’s wife or the product of yellow journalism of that era is for historians greater than myself to figure out.

In the meantime,  here is the transcript of the Georgia Constitution article I found.  Enjoy — it’s a hoot!

Madame Rizal Forming Expedition to Fight Spanish

PHILADELPHIA, September 22 — Philadelphia is harboring unawares a woman whom Spain would pay a princely ransom to capture – patriotic native of the Philippine Islands, whose courage and bravery for the insurgent cause have resulted in the formation of a monstrous expedition of arms, ammunition and men who are even now en route to Japan, where the formal filibustering crew will be made up and will within two months sail for the islands under the inspired leadership of this fair young rebel.

Mariana Comenol Orbi Hozae Rizal, the widow of Dr Hozae Rizal, who was butchered by Gen Polaviejo on Dec 6, 1896. Dr Rizal was the acknowledged leader and instigator of the revolution which has been smoldering since 1894. As the president of Manila University, he was honored and revered by the residents of the islands. Religious persecution and the atrocities list of tyrannies that are familiar to Cuban and Philippine historians finally grew too grave for Dr Rizal to bear. He was instrumental in gathering together the patriots and took to the field.

Marina Comenol Orbi had been a student in the university. An attachment had sprung up and the brave girl, on December 4, went into the thick of the battle to meet her lover and they were married, with a band of patriots as the only witnesses. Marina returned to Manila and two days later the young husband was captured. The Spanish general visited the prisoner and offered him life, liberty, and passports for himself and wife if he would persuade the insurgents to yield. Rizal courageously and patriotically refused to buy his freedom at such a price. On December 8th he was led to a stone wall and shot down.

The presence of Mrs. Rizal in this city has been known only to two or three of her most trusted friends. She has been here a month and not an idle moment has been spent.

One of the most important steps yet taken by the Philippines has been their resolution to join forces with Cuba for mutual interests. It is said that Mrs. Rizal has been instrumental in drawing up an agreement by which the Cuban junta and the Philippine patriots will act in unison. She has been in consultation with the most influential Cubans and the result will likely be a bond which will mean much for their advancement. Spain has a foe in Mrs. Rizal who is capable of doing much for the cause of liberty. In appearance, she is very beautiful, tall, graceful and typically oriental.

Research Notes:

1. Enriquez, Nestor P.  “Rizal Widow“.  Date published: 2003.  Date accessed:  21 June 2011.

2. Enriquez, Nestor P.  “The continuing saga of Mrs. Jose Rizal“.  Date published: 13 October 2009.  Date accessed:  21 June 2011.

3. “Madame Rizal Forming Expedition to Fight Spanish“.  Atlanta Constitution. Page 4.  23 September 1897.  Date accessed:  21 June 2011

Bios of Notable Thomasites

21 June 2011

This is a collection of mini-biographies of notable American educators who have left their personal marks in the history of many Filipino learning institutions.  While they are collectively called “Thomasites”, not all were passengers of the historic USS Thomas.  Some were soldiers who stayed or returned after the Spanish-American War.  Others belonged to the waves of teachers who gravitated to what was then an American colony, the Philippines.  The names are listed alphabetically.

[You can find a complete listing of American teachers assigned to the Philippines (as of 1902) here.  The research notes after the article include links to other sites.  Access to some are subject to subscription.]

Joseph E. Allen was born on April 1860 in Davenport, Iowa to an American father (Maine) and an Irish mother, Margaret Allen.  His siblings were Elijah and Mary.  He was already set up as a school principal when he received his foreign teaching appointment in October 1901, at an annual salary of $1,200. He moved to the Philippines with his wife Minnie and two children in 1902, to help establish the public school system.  He was stationed in Naga, Cebu, where he contracted small pox and died after three weeks on 29 April 1903.  He was buried just outside the local cemetery.  Find his family tree here.

George P. Anderson was born in Illinois in 1865.  He was 5’8″ and had light brown hair and blue eyes.  After graduating from the Yale Divinity School, George worked as a teacher.  On 04 May 1898, he enlisted as a private in Portland, Oregon under Company H of the 2nd Regiment of the Oregon Infantry — volunteers in the Spanish-American War in the Philippines.  On 12 June 1899 , he was discharged from service in Manila to became the country’s Superintendent of Instruction, taking over from Fr. William D. McKinnon.  George and his wife Mary resided in Seattle, Washington after his service in the Philippines.  He died from pneumonia on 01 July 1932.

Atkinson

Fred Washington Atkinson was born in 23 May 1865 in Reading, Massachusetts to George Washington Atkinson (a retail grocer from New Hampshire) and Eliza Atkinson (from Maine).  His siblings include George, Eddie, Harry and Willie.  His wife was Winnifred Whitford Atkinson.  Fred received his A. B. from Harvard University in 1890; and his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1893.  As an educator, he held prominent positions in various institutions:  Head of Science Department, Westfield High School (MA), 1891; University of Berlin, 1891; University of Halle, 1892; Universities of Jena and Sorbornne, 1893-1894; Principal, Springfield High School (MA), 1894-1900.  Dr. Atkinson was appointed the Superintendent General of Public Instruction by the Philippine Commission on 05 May 1900, and he served in this capacity until 1903.  His time in the Philippines gave him the opportunity to learn about life in the archipelago — his resource in writing the book “The Philippine Islands“, which was published in 1905.  He continued to lead a successful career as an educator — Superintendent of Schools, Newton, MA., 1904; President, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, NY, from 1904; Member, Board of Education, New York City, 1916-1918.  He was 6’4″ tall, and had brown hair and blue eyes.  Find his family tree here.

William H. Badger was born in 1867.  He was among the pioneering teachers who moved to the Philippines in 1902 to establish the public school system.  He died from cholera-induced blood poisoning on 01 August 1902 in Malasiqui, Pangasinan.  His widow, Viola Badger, accompanied by their two small children, stayed to teach in Manila.

Barnaud

Albert Joseph Barnaud was born in Spencer, Worcester, MA on 24 April 1882 to immigrant parents — Elie Barnaud of France and M.L. Cornelia Amolette from French Canada. In 1903, Albert Joseph Barnaud graduated from the College of the Holy Cross (a Jesuit-run liberal arts college). He moved to the Philippines to help establish the Philippine public school system in July 1903, where he was assigned in Tagbilaran, Bohol as a supervising teacher. During his stay in the Philippines, the multi-lingual Albert joined the Esperanto Association, a global movement which tried to promote an international language, Esperanto. Albert met a young Filipina and sired a son, Arturo. When he left the Philippines in June 1913, he was working as a cashier at the Manila Hotel. Upon returning to the United States, he worked primarily as a trade executive for the Bureau of Commerce. He married Marie T. Keane and had a family together. Albert was 5 feet 5 inches tall with brown hair and brown eyes. He died in Los Angeles, California on 20 August 1960 at the age of 78. Find his family tree here.

Josephine Baugh moved to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system.  She died of Asiatic cholera on 25 August 1903 in the Philippines.

Bennett

Roy DeWitt Bennett was born on 06 May 1884 in Findlay, Ohio to Rawson Corwin Bennett and Anna Wall.  He was among the later waves of educators who moved to the Philippines to establish the public school system.  From 1918 to 1922, Roy was the principal of Nueva Vizcaya High School.  He married a Filipina, Josefa Camaguian Cutaran of Bayombong, Nueva Viscaya, with whom he had 4 children. His son, Roy Anthony Cutaran Bennett, became the editor of the Manila Bulletin in the 1940’s. His daughter, Helen Cutaran Bennett was crowned Miss Visayas at the 1936 Manila Carnival and served as Foreign Secretary to President Elipidio Quirino. He died on 30 March 1968 in Pasadena, California at the age of 83.  Find his family tree here.

Frederick Douglass Bonner moved to the Philippines in 1902 with his wife Charlotte. They were two of a handful of African American who joined the movement to establish the Philippine public school system.  Fred was assigned to teach in Subic, Zambales.  Three of their four children were born in the islands.  The family returned to the United States in the late 1910s, where Fred worked as a public accountant.  Find his family tree here.

Storts-Buckisch

Buckisch

Walter G.M. Buckisch was born on 20 December 1888 in Iowa to German immigrants, Christian (a pastor) and Valeske Buckisch.  He was 5’11” tall and had brown hair and blue eyes.  He came to the Philippines in 1912, belonging to the later waves of American teachers.  His experiences as a teacher in foreign barrios were documented in the anthology  “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines” published in 1959.  His wife, Laura Storts-Buckisch of Ohio was also a teacher; and their son, Herbert William, was born in the Philippines in 1928.  The family resided along 66 Naglatan Street, Manila.  He died on 16 January 1975 in Los Angeles, California at 86.  Find his family tree here.

John Henry Manning Butler was born on 05 September 1868 in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. He was one of a handful of African Americans who travelled to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the Philippine public school system. His first station was Alominos, Zambales.  His wife Fannie soon followed and gave birth to their son, Hood, in the Philippines in 1909.  In his stay in the islands, he amassed 100 hectares of rice fields in Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, 1,379-square meter residence in San Juan, Rizal and a library with 1,000 volumes. Dr. Butler died on 15 March 1944 in Mandaluyong, Philippines.  Find his family tree here.

Ira A. Collins came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system.  While crossing the strait from Bais, Negros Occidental to Samboan, Cebu, he fell from a local banca and drowned on 29 January 1902.  His body was buried in Dumaguete, Negros Occidental.

Dorothy E. Conant arrived in the Philippines in early 1902 to marry Mr. David E. Conant and travelled with him to his station in Bais, Negros Occidental, where she died on 23 June 1902 from a pregnancy-related hypermesis.  Her husband returned to the United States with her remains.

Price W. Cooper came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was assigned to teach in Laoag, Ilocos Norte.  He died of smallpox on 07 April 1903 in the Philippines.

Crow

Joseph William Witton Crow was born on 04 January 1874 in Hollister, San Benito, California to William G. Crow (a farmer and land owner, originally from Missouri) and Angeline Whitton (a native of California).  His siblings were Emma, Warren, Annie, Dixie and Hugh.  He appeared in the 1900 US Census as a 26-year old school teacher, living with his widowed father and siblings.  He came to the Philippines in 1902  as a pioneering teacher aboard the Transport Thomas, and was assigned to Nabua, Camarines Sur.  He was then assigned to Iloilo where he fell in love with Asuncion de Ocampo, a Filipina from Capiz, Iloilo.  They married in 1910 and were blessed with 9 children.  By 1915, he was serving as the Provincial Treasurer of Batangas.  Joseph and his family became prominent members of Manila society at the height of the American Occupation.  His daughter, Charity Paz Crow, was crowned Miss Luzon at the 1933 Manila Carnival.  He was 5′ 8″, had light blue eyes and was missing his left thumb.  Find his family tree here.

W.S. Davis came to the Philippines with his family in 1901. Sadly, he was among the list of casualties within the first twenty months after the arrival of the USS Thomas. He died of appendicitis on 22 September 1901 in Dagupan, Philippines, after which his wife and four children made the somber trip back to the United States.

Mary H. Fee came to the Philippines in 1902 aboard the USAT Buford. When she arrived in the Philippines, she was stationed as a teacher in picturesque Capiz, Capiz.   In 1907, she published, together with three others, an English language reader “The First Year Book“, which was part of the Philippine Education series.   Her life in the islands became an inspiration for her book “A Woman’s Impressions of the Philippines“.

Clyde O. France of Berea, Ohio left New York on 22 February 1902 to become a teacher in the Philippines. After a brief stay in Manila, he, Ernest Heger, Louis A. Thomas and John E. Wells left for Cebu where they were to await their station assignments. The group left on the morning of 10 June 1902 for a photography walk in the northern foothills, even after being warned by Constabulary Inspector Ross of dangerous outlaws in the area. His remains, and those of his companions, were recovered on 23 July 1902.

William B. Freer came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Nueva Caceres, Camarines Sur.  He related his experiences teaching in a foreign barrio in a book  “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines” published in 1959.

Walter Gilliam came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Bato, Catanduanes.  He died of smallpox on 07 July 1903 in the Philippines.

Gubisch

Arthur Williams Gubisch was born on 28 January 1873 in Glogan, Germany.  He arrived in the United Stated in 1888, when he was 12.  He enlisted as a private in US Army on 15 June 1894 in Chicago, Illinois when he was 22 yo and 5 months and working as a clerk at the time.   By the time he served his second tour of duty in 1898, he was promoted to Sergeant.  During the 1900 US Census taken in the American camp, in San Isidro, Philippines, he listed his residence as 2466 Sprague Street, Omaha, Nevada.  He was honorably discharged from military service in 1897 at Fort Yakes in North Dakota.  In November 1901; he got his teaching appointment , for which he wss going to earn In 1902:  1,000, Arthur was assigned to San Isidro, Tunisan, Laguna.  He married a Filipina, Aufronia Filomena Apolonia Reyes, of Apari, Cagayan, and their union was blessed with 9 children.  Later in life, he became a Constabulary Inspector.  He died on 10 December 1952 at age 79 in Labangon, Cebu, Philippines and was buried in the veterans’ plot of the municipal cemetery.  Find his family tree here.

Loren C. Guernsey was born on 19 May 1869 in Schoharie, New York to George W. Guernsey (a farmer) and Janthra Guernsey — both New York natives. He was 5’8″ tall and had blonde hair and blue eyes.  In 1895, he graduated with honors from Union College in Schenectady, New York, where he excelled in extemporaneous speech.  Loren came to the Philippines in 1901 to help establish the public school system. Sadly, he was among the list of casualties within the first twenty months after the arrival of the USS Thomas.  He died from diphtheria on 02 May 1902 in Balayan, Batangas, Philippines.  He left his wife, Minnie (also a teacher) and three small children — Bernard, Iva Lucinda and Loren Paul (born in the Philippines) — who eventually returned to the United States.  Find his family tree here.

Hamme

William Rockford Hamme was born on 20 January 1887 in York, Pennsylvania — one of 9 children of Daniel L. Hamme and Salome Blair, both natives of Pennsylvania.  He lived in Atchison, Kansas before moving to the Philippines in June 1916, part of the latter waves of American teachers.  He was stationed in Iloilo, Iloilo.  He related his experiences teaching in a foreign barrio in a book  “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines” published in 1959.  He was 5’10” tall and had brown hair and brown eyes.

Ernest Heger of Cinncinati, Ohio left New York on 22 February 1902 to become a teacher in the Philippines. After a brief stay in Manila, he, Clyde O. France Louis A. Thomas and John E. Wells left for Cebu where they were to await their station assignments. The group left on the morning of 10 June 1902 for a photography walk in the northern foothills, even after being warned by Constabulary Inspector Ross of dangerous outlaws in the area. His remains, and those of his companions, were recovered on 23 July 1902.

Robert R. Jamizon came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system.  He died from Asiatic cholera on 31 May 1902 in Dinalupihan, Bataan, Philippines.

Joshua B. Kirkpatrick came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Ayuquitan, Negros Oriental.  He died from Asiatic cholera on 15 August 1903 in the Philippines.

Lot Dean Lockwood was born on 20 February 1879 in Yuba, California to Thomas J Lockwood and Albertina Brown — both natives of Connecticut.  He came to the Philippines, belonging to the later waves of American teachers.  He married Goldie Elizabeth Donhan on 19 September 1919.  Sadly, she died barely a year later in Manila on July 1920.  He remarried in 1923 — his new wife, Bertha.  His experiences as a teacher in foreign barrios were documented in the anthology  “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines” published in 1959.  Find his family tree here.

Herbert Lucker came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system.  He died from Asiatic cholera on 06 August 1902 in Laoag, Ilocos Norte.

W.E. Lutz was born about 1867 and came to the Philippines in 1902, with his wife, who was also a teacher.  Sadly, Mariam Lutz died of Asiatic cholera in Manila on 24 Jul 1903 at the age of 32, even before she could go to her station.  He continued his work as a teacher, founded the Iloilo Normal School and served at its first principal.  This institution grew to become what is now the Iloilo National High School and the West Visayas State University.  Mr. Lutz was remembered as a “very kind and understanding man”.

Marquardt

Walter William Marquardt was born on o8 Sep 1878 in Dayton, Ohio.  He came to the Philippines as a pioneering teacher in 1902, and was first assigned to Tanauan, Leyte.  In his early years in the barrio, upon introduction of gardening, he related how his students brought their servants to tend to the plots — a reminder of the class system the Spanish instituionalized.  He spent 18 years in the country — his three sons were all born in Manila.  In 1921, he penned a pamphlet called “What Filipino Students Coming to America Ought to Know“, which became an important guide for government pensionados.  He was 5’7″ and had grey eyes and brown hair.  He died on 02 November 1946 in Crow Wing, Minnesota.  One of his sons, Frederick S. Marquardt wrote an essay about the life of early American teachers in the Philippines, which was included in the anthology “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines” published in 1959.  Find his family tree here.

Walter Roy Matthews from Lansing, Michigan came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system.  He was found dead from a self-inflicted gunshot wound on 19 February 1903 in the town he was stationed in, Pitogo, Tayabas.  He was buried on a knoll in the local churchyard.

William D. McKinnon was the parish priest of St. Joseph’s Parish, Rio Vista, California from 1893 to 1897.  In 1898, he was commissioned to serve as the Chaplain of the First California Regiment and was sent to the Philippines to attend to the spiritual needs of the troops who were fighting the war against Spain.  He is credited by some scholars as the broker behind the surrender of Manila.  Three weeks after the city of Manila was occupied by American forces, the twice-wounded chaplain was made Superintendent of Schools and Cemeteries.  Seven public schools were immediately opened, each handled by a soldier assigned to teach English.  Fr. McKinnon died on 25 September 1902.  He had a sister name Mary E. McKinnon — she filed to receive his pension in 1907 in California.  On 25 January 1906, a military battery (a fortified structure for the storage of heavy guns) in San Francisco was named after the chaplain.  In 1927, a statue of Fr. McKinnon was commissioned by the Bay Area Spanish-American war veterans and erected in the San Francisco Golden Gate Park.

Roderick G. McLeod born on 05 March 1875 in Scotland and was a naturalized American citizen.  He came to the Philippines as a young teacher in 1902, and was assigned to Pila, Laguna.  By 1914, he was the Superintendent of the Philippine School of Arts and Trade (now the Technological University of the Philippines).  His wife, May and daughter, Ruth May, joined him in the islands in 1925.

D.C. Montgomery was born to D.W. Montgomery in Nebraska.  He moved to the Philippines with his wife, Eva Montgomery (also a teacher), to serve as the Division Superintendent of Schools for Negros Occidental.  The couple was headquartered in Dumaguete.  D.C. was murdered on 31 October 1902 by ladrones (outlaws) as he was travelling between Talisay and Bacolod.

Moses

Bernard Norton Moses was born on 28 Aug 1846 in Burlington, Connecticut.  He is one of at least 6 children of farmer Richard Moses and Rachel Norton.  He had been an educator at the University of California, was an original member of the Philippine Commission, serving  from 16 March 1900 to 31 December 1902, drafted Act No. 74 or the “Education Act of 1901″, which resulted in the revamp of the Philippine public school system.   He served as the country’s Secretary of Public Instruction, closely working with Fred Atkinson, his Superintendent-General.  He moved to the islands with his wife, Edith Moses.  The couple had one child, Aurea.   He was 6 feet tall and had dark brown hair and grey eyes.  Find his family tree here.

Harry W. Nash was a Sergeant in Captain Buck O’Neil’s company of Rough Riders, who fought the Spanish-American war in Cuba. After leaving military service, he received his teaching appointment in Manila in June 1902, for an annual salary of $1,200. He died of cerebral hemorrhage in Manila on 05 July 1902. The Elks Club forwarded his remains to his sister in Globe, Arizona.

Levona P. Newsom moved to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Lingayen, Pangasinan.  She related her early experiences as a teacher in a foreign barrio in the book, “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines”.

John J. O’Donnel Jr. moved to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stations in Licab, Nueva Ecija.  He died of Asiatic cholera on 22 August 1903 in the Philippines.

Franklin C. Osborn was born in February 1876 in Wood, Wisconsin.  He worked as a farmer until he enlisted in Company H, 22nd US Infantry on 12 July 1899 and was among those who fought the Spanish-American war in the Philippines. Franklin was a Sergeant when he mustered out in Manila in January 1902; and received his teaching appointment in February 1902.  He was offered an annual salary of $900.  Franklin had only recently returned to Baler, Tayabas (where he was once stationed as a soldier) to take on a teaching post, when we was struck with dysentery. He was awaiting the medical transport to Manila when he died on 08 June 1902 in Baler, Tayabas, Philippines, where he was also buried.

Orman K. Osborn was born in 1876 to O.M. Howard of South Dakota.  He moved to the Philippines  to help establish the public school system.  While in his teaching station in Bolinao, Zambales, he joined a party hunting outlaws and was shot in a confrontation with the ladrones.  He died from the gunshot injuries on 24 January 1903 at the age of 27.  He was buried in the same town.  His widow, Antonia Osborn, a native woman, resided in Manila.

Polley

Mary E. Polley was born on 01 March 1871 in Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin to Hackley Polley, a farmer, originally of Warkworth, Canada and Amanda Polley, a nurse from Massachusetts.  She had two siblings, Delilah and John.  Mary came to the Philippines as a pioneering teacher aboard the Transport Thomas.  She was first assigned to Santa Barbara, Iloilo where she, in support of Principal WE Lutz, began the Iloilo Normal School in 1902.  This institution grew to become what is now the Iloilo National High School and the West Visayas State University.  She also served the President of the Philippine Normal School (now a University) in Manila from May 1929 to December 1929.  She wrote educational materials, like the reader “Rosa and her Friends“, in a continuing effort to make books which reflected the Philippine experience.  Mary never married.  She died on 31 Jan 1953 in Pasay City, Philippines at the age of 81.  Find her family tree here.

Mae I. Ross came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Lucban, Tayabas (now Quezon).  She died from amoebic dysentery on 03 January 1903 in the Philippines.

Vernon E. Skiff came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed  in Bauag, La Union.  He died from smallpox on 02 February 1903 in the Philippines.

Summers

George Robert Summers of Grand Chain, Illinois moved to the Philippines to help establish the public school system.  He was in Fulton, Missouri when he received his appointment in October 1901 to teach in the islands, at an annual salary of $1,000.  He was initially assigned to teach in Cauayan, Ilocos Sur.  He stood 5 foot 8 inches tall and had dark brown hair and brown eyes.  In Ilocos, he met a young lass from a prominent local family, Trinidad Guerrero Agcaoili — whose older brothers benefited from the Pensionado Act of 1903 and were able to pursue engineering degrees at Cornell University. The couple eventually moved to Manila where he took on the role of Superintendent of Schools and Asst. to the Director of Public Schools. His address is recorded to be 512 San Luis, Manila.  He accompanied the Philippine National Track and Field Team to the 3rd Far Eastern Championship Games held in Tokyo, Japan in May 1917. He returned to the United States with his family when he retired. Upon his death, his daughter Helen Summers-Brown took his extensive collection of Filipiniana books as the “seed” with which she founded the Filipino American Library in Los Angeles.  Find his family tree here.

Bessie Taylor-Thompson moved to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was stationed in Balanga, Bataan.  Her early difficulties as a teacher in the barrio was documented in “Tales of the American Teachers in the Philippines“.

Louis A. Thomas  of Rhode Island left New York on 22 February 1902 to become a teacher in the Philippines. After a brief stay in Manila, he, his cousin John E. Wells, Clyde O. France and Ernest Heger left for Cebu where they were to await their station assignments. The group left on the morning of 10 June 1902 for a photography walk in the northern foothills, even after being warned by Constabulary Inspector Ross of dangerous outlaws in the area. His remains, and those of his companions, were recovered on 23 July 1902.

Woodson

Carter Godwin Woodson was born in 19 December 1875 in New Canton, Virginia to former slaves, James and Elizae Woodson (both Virginia-born). He became a school supervisor in the Philippines between 1903 and 1907 — one of a handful of African American Thomasites. He wrote personal letters which alludes to problems he had with Filipinos in the Bureau of Education, which contributed to his departure. Upon his return to the United States, he continued his studies at the University of Chicago and Harvard University. He was drafted in 1918 to take part in WWI. Carter was one of the first scholars to study African American history and in 1916, was the founder of the “Journal of Negro History”. In 1926, he pioneered the celebration of what is now called “Black History Month”.  Find his family tree here.

Robert P. Walker came to the Philippines in 1902 to help establish the public school system and was assigned to Argao, Cebu.  He died from smallpox on 03 July 1903 in the Philippines.

John E. Wells of Rhode Island left New York on 22 February 1902 to become a teacher in the Philippines. After a brief stay in Manila, he, his cousin Louis A Thomas, Clyde O. France and Ernest Hegerleft for Cebu where they were to await their station assignments. The group left on the morning of 10 June 1902 for a photography walk in the northern foothills, even after being warned by Constabulary Inspector Ross of dangerous outlaws in the area. His remains, and those of his companions, were recovered on 23 July 1902.

Wrentmore

Clarence George Wrentmore was born on 15 December 1867 in Solon, Ohio to George W. Wrentmore, an English migrant farmer, and Susannah Wrentmore. His siblings were Alson and Ernest. He was a professor of engineering at University of Michigan (1893-1911) when he answered the call to be a pioneering educator. He moved to the Philippines in 1912 with his wife, Margaret Wrentmore (nee MacFarla) and his young children — George, Elizabeth, Gwyneth and Margaret. He served as the Dean of the College of Engineering at the University of Philippines and was a practicing civil engineer from 1912 to 1919. Find his family tree here.

R. Zumstein arrived in the Philippines in 1902 and was stationed as  a teacher in Nagcarlang, Laguna.  He left for Manila to meet his fiancee who was arriving on the July transport.  They were married on 21 July 1902 at 8 o’clock in the morning and he died from Asiatic cholera at 1 o’clock in the afternoon on the same day.  Mrs. Jeanette Zunstein received her teaching appointment in Manila in August 1902 (for an annual salary of $1,000) and replaced him in his provincial post.

Read more…

Manila, Queen of the Pacific

8 June 2011

This short was filmed in 1938 and was narrated by Paul Devlin. This glimpse into pre-war Manila speaks of the contrast between the developments ushered by the American and Spanish colonialists. You can find more history videos here.

The audio transcript follows.

Manila, capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, rises on the shore of the bay, into which the Spaniards sailed in 1570; and where in 1898, Admiral Dewey achieved one of the greatest naval victories in history — the Battle of Manila Bay. As headquarters for American commercial interests in the Orient, Manila has been transformed from a sleepy Spanish town into a modern city. Inter-island ships serving the archipelago of some 7,000 islands, berth along a cave of the Pasig River that flows to the center of the city. From the sterns, fly both the American and Philippines flags for the Commonwealth government is still under the protection and advise of the United States.

Much of the local trading is carried on in “kaskos”, flat-bottom boats which are poled through the many canals and waterways of Manila. Each “kasko” has its family, whose life is spent beneath its thatched roof of bamboo or palm, veritable water gypsies in a climate that is kind to all.

Manila is really three cities in one: Old Tondo, home of the Philippine masses; modern Manila, born of American development; and Intramuros, walled city of the Spaniards.

The last, built on the south shore at the mouth of the Pasig River, is surrounded by two and a half miles of wall, which begun in 1590 worked for centuries bulwarks against invasion. The moat encircling the wall was filled in for sanitary reasons by the Americans, and is today a drill ground, a recreation area and a golf course. The walls and bastions are excellently preserved and have withstood even earthquakes which at times, laid ruin the old city. In the bastion of the Royal Gate is Manila’s famous aquarium. The Parian Gates is the most notable of the city’s five, which until 1852, were all closed at night.  Within the walls, little has changed since the Spanish rule. The main shopping street, Calle Real, chiefly catering to tourists, presents a picture of busy activity and colorful traffic. The projecting balconies and grilled windows are reminders of old Spain.  The Franciscan church, more than 200 years old, is one of the many places of worship within walled Manila, for the Spaniards converted the Filipinos into the only Christian peoples in the Orient, long before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock.  A bodice with huge sleeves of cloth made from pineapple plant and a long skirt, the train of which is tucked into the front of the belt, is the typical dress of the Filipino women.  Facing quiet McKinley Square is the Cathedral, built in Byzantine style a little more than 60 years ago, added to other cathedrals destroyed by earthquakes.

On the north shore of the Pasig River is Tondo, the oldest and most densely populated quarter. Here the masses live, and here also is the modern business area of the city. In this section are the greatest contrasts. Fine, skyscraper office buildings and banks, among crumbling, thick-walled ancient structures. Broad, straight streets, and narrow, crooked ones. Canals teeming with boat activity, and paved streets with modern traffic.  Traffic in all parts of Tondo is heavy and difficult to control. With swiftly moving autos abreast “caromatas”, the two-wheeled native conveyances drawn by active Philippine ponies.  The oldest and still the main business street of Manila is the famed Escolta, a congested narrow thoroughfare, five blocks long, which parallels the river, between Plaza Moriaga and Plaza Goiti. On it, stays most of the fine shops and department stores of the city.  Another important thoroughfare is Rizal Avenue, named in the memory of the great hero-martyr, Dr. Jose Rizal, who was executed by the Spaniards in 1896, two years before the coming of the Americans.  There are many arcaded sidewalks in Manila. For although sunstroke in unknown, it is more pleasant and cooler to keep in the shade during the heat of the day.  Each section of the city has its market, where practically everything used by the Filipinos can be purchased. In the Yangco Market, a bazaar devoted exclusively to Filipino products, almost every locally-made article can be secured.  The two-wheeled “caromata” and “caritela” are the principal conveyances of the Filipinos. These carriages accommodate two and six persons, respectively. Little straw protectors are placed on the wheel when the passenger mounts or descends.  The Philippine beast of burden is the “carabao”. There are more than two and a quarter million of these patient, hard-working animals in the islands. And their slow pace is appreciated by their easy-going masters. In addition to modern motor transportation, the horse-drawn bus still holds an important place.

The Pasig River is spanned by four bridges. Jones Bridge, surmounted by Filipino figures is the newest. The graceful arch stands on the site of the old bridge of Spain.  The spacious and dignified Post Office overlooks the river and faces upon the Plaza Lawton where the Burgos Drive begins. The Burgos Drive, a magnificent wide boulevard follws part of the sunken garden of the old city moat. Near its middle stand the superb Legislative Building, completed in 1926 at a cost of two million dollars. Today, it is the seat of the new Commonwealth Government. In front of it, over the course laid out around the walls of old Manila, modern Manila plays golf.  A residential section where many beautiful homes and the best hotels are situated is Ermita. The famous Manila Hotel, overlooking the bay is one of the finest air-conditioned hotels in the tropics. In Ermita are also the buildings of the University of the Philippines, a government institution which embraces wide fields of learning and offers excellent educational opportunities to all.  Contrasting greatly with the narrow, irregular streets of Spain’s Manila are the wide, well-paved boulevards of the American city. Great shade tree over arch many of the avenues; and palms or colorful, flowering trees line other arches. Dewey Boulevard, the pride of Manila, is built upon reclaimed land along the shores of the bay, an idea location for many of the residences of which the city boasts. Among them is that of the American high commissioner. The spacious house with its gardens and patio is often the scene of social splendor.  Situated on the north bank of the Pasig River are the executive offices and home of the President of the Philippine Commonwealth. In a mansion built as the suburban residence for Spanish Governors, a Philippine chief executive now directs the whole government of this island Commonwealth, an archipelago fast changing from a dreary Spanish colony into a modern, agricultural, industrial and independent country.

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